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quinta-feira, junho 30, 2005

A COMUNICAÇÃO E O PODER ECONÓMICO

é um dos temas integrados nos XII CURSOS INTERNACIONAIS DE VERÃO DE CASCAIS. Os cursos têm a direcção de José Tengarrinha e realizam-se no Centro Cultural de Cascais de 27 de Junho a 09 de Julho de 2005.

O tema A COMUNICAÇÃO E O PODER ECONÓMICO
é coordenado por Mário Mesquita e tem o seguinte programa:

Tema 3
4 a 9 de Julho

A Comunicação e o Poder Económico
Coordenação: Dr. Mário Mesquita
Escola Superior de Comunicação Social (IPL) e Universidade Lusófona de Humanidades e Tecnologias

Dia 4
17h00
Introdução
Dr. Mário Mesquita

A lógica da concentração dos media e os limites da autonomia do jornalismo no âmbito europeu
Nadine Toussaint Desmoulins, Universidade Panthéon-Assas, Paris II, Institut Français de Presse

Comentadores:
José Rebelo, ISCTE (Instituto Superior de Ciências do Trabalho e da Empresa)
Pedro Braumann, RTP; ESCS/IPL; CIMD (Centro de Investigação Media e Democracia)

Dia 5
17h00
O novo poder económico nos media no Brasil
Flávio Tavares, escritor e jornalista

Comentadores:
Jair Ratner, correspondente em Lisboa do Estado de São Paulo
Mário Mesquita, ESCS e Universidade Lusófona

Dia 6
17h00
O impacto da propriedade dos media no jornalismo português
Mesa-Redonda
Moderadora:
Carla Martins, Universidade Lusófona
Participantes
António José Teixeira, Jornal de Notícias (sub-director)
Elsa Costa e Silva, Diário de Notícias, investigadora (Universidade do Minho)
Luís Marques, RTP (membro do Conselho de Administração)
Paulo Faustino, investigador ESCS – Universidade Complutense de Madrid
Sandra Monteiro, Le Monde Diplomatique (directora da edição portuguesa)

Dia 7
17h00
A concentração económica dos media na Península Ibérica
Daniel E. Jones, Universidade Ramon Llull, Barcelona

Comentadores:
Cesário Borga, RTP
Ramón Font, RTVE


Dia 8
17h00
Panorama sócio-económico dos media na Europa
José Manuel Nobre-Correia, Universidade Livre de Bruxelas

Comentadores:
Fernando Correia, Universidade Lusófona de Humanidades e Tecnologias
Helena de Sousa, Universidade do Minho

Dia 9
17h00
Práticas jornalísticas e concentração dos media – da experiência italiana à norte-americana
Dennis F. Redmont, Associated Press, Roma

Comentadores:
Joel Silveira, ESCS – CIMD (Centro de Investigação Media e Democracia)
Mário Bettencourt Resendes, jornalista

Informações e Inscrições:

XII Cursos Internacionais de Verão de Cascais
A/c Dr. António Carvalho / Dr.ª Cristina Pacheco
Câmara Municipal de Cascais – Departamento de Cultura
Tel.: 21 482 53 30


Inscrições:

XII Cursos Internacionais de Verão de Cascais
A/c Dr. António Carvalho / Dr.ª Cristina Pacheco
Câmara Municipal de Cascais – Departamento de Cultura
Tel.: 21 482 53 30

quarta-feira, junho 29, 2005

O EXPRESSO, COULSON E A EDUCAÇÂO SEXUAL II

Eis o texto prometido na íntegra, datado de 1991.

Denigrating Carl Rogers: William Coulson's Last Crusade
HOWARD KIRSCHENBAUM

This article reviews William Coulson's assertions that Carl Rogers,
AbrahamMaslow, and he initiated the humanistic educationfield, that
Rogers repudiated his philosophy late in life, and that they owe the
nation's parents an apology.The author argues that these chargesare
groundlessand self-servingand providesexamplesand quotationsfrom
Rogers's later writings to show how Rogers remained constant to his
basicperson-centeredbeliefsuntil his death.

We often assume that the fields of counseling and education
advance primarily through the development of new
approaches, their systematic evaluation, and the publication
of these results in professional journals. Although it may
take a generation or longer, presumably the soundest and most
effective approaches eventually work their way into common
prctice. Meanwhile, busy teachers, counselors, and school administrators
do their best to keep abreast of the latest research
and practice and introduce new approaches based on these
findings.
The work of William Coulson illustrates another approach to
influencing the direction of education and counseling practices
in the schools and society. Coulson, until recently a professor in
the School of Human Behavior at U.S. International University in
San Diego, does not publish in the leading professional journals
nor speak at major professional conferences. Instead, he takes his
brief on the educational practices he advocates or condemns
directly to the public. He sends lengthy "memoranda" and letters
to school boards, federal drug education curriculum panels, and
parent organizations around the country. He testifies before
legislative committees on education and drug abuse. He appears
regularly on radio and television talk shows in localities where
controversy has arisen over school programs. In May, 1990, he
appeared on the nationally televised "Today Show."
Some of Coulson's memoranda and correspondence are written
on his university letterhead. Others give his affiliation as the
Research Council on Ethnopsychology and are copyrighted by
the "Center for Enterprising Families." Still others are on the
letterhead of his own family enterprise "Coulson and Sons-the
Ethnopsychology Institute." In all these capacities and through
this multifaceted approach to communicating his views, in recent
years William Coulson has become nationally prominent as one
of the leading critics of humanistic psychology, affective education,
and drug prevention programs. He has vocally and often
successfully opposed many excellent education and drug abuse
prevention programs in local school districts around the country.
Ironically, he has done so while proclaiming himself to be one of
the leading founders of humanistic, psychological education in
the United States.
In the process of critiquing affective drug abuse education,
Coulson has frequently invoked the name of the late Carl R.
Rogers (1902-1987), stating unequivocally that Rogers changed
his thinking late in life and renounced his belief in personcentered
methods and affective education. Because Rogers is
considered by many to be the most influential figure in the history
of counseling (see Heesacker, Heppner, & Rogers, 1982, and
Smith, 1982), and because no one else has made such an assertion
about Rogers, this is a most significant claim by Coulson. This
article attempts to counter Coulson's arguments about Carl
Rogers.
Nobody is a more vehement evangelist than a converted sinner,
which is how WiIIiam Coulson describes himself these days. This
is illustrated by the following brief selections from his many
writings and interviews.
I helped Carl Rogers and Abe Maslow c'Ookup the field of
Humanistic Education. (1989, February)
Rogers, Maslow and I set up the series and did the original
experimental tests on humanistic education. .. By 1970 Rogers
and I were trying to get the word out that it [humanistic
education] was leading to the collapse of institutions and harm
to children. One of the harms it was doing to children was that
it was getting them worked up in class so that they couldn't
function intellectually anymore. (1989, February)
Rogers and I experimented with classroom adaptations of
humanistic therapeutic principles-active listening, I-messages
and unconditional acceptance-and found them destructive of
mind. (1988, April, p. 2)
Rogers, toward the end of his life (in a 1983 book), called the
whole series of experiments with humanistic education that
we're involved in, a pattern of failure. (1989, February)
If anyone would bother to read their [Rogers's and Maslow's]
later writings, they'd find the three of us were in agreement.
(1989, February)
Carl Rogers died last year. He and I and our project
teammates owe the nation's parents an apology. .. (1989, April,
p.21)
These quotations represent an unconscionable distortion of
Carl Rogers's views, a revisionist history widely circulatep by
Coulson that has no basis in truth. Although I am not familiar
enough with Maslow's work to comment on his alleged evolution,
as author of the biography On BecomingCarl Rogers
(Kirschenbaum, 1979) and co-editor of The Carl Rogers Reader
(Kirschenbaum & Henderson, 1989a) and Carl Rogers:Dialogues
(Kirschenbaum & Henderson, 1989b), I am concerned that
Coulson's inaccurate statements about Rogers have gone unchal-
JOURNAL OF COUNSELING & DEVELOPMENT. MA YIJUNE 1991. VOL69 411
.I~iiIi! :' Kirschenbaum
lenged. As a consequence, as time has passed, his claims about
Rogers have become increasingly outlandish and damaging. It is
time to set the record straight.
In Coulson's (1973) book, A Sense of Community, he described
his initial relationship with Carl Rogers (in 1963). He was a
research fellow under Rogers at the University of Wisconsin for
one semester and a summer session, but Rogers was away most
ofthat time. When Rogers left Wisconsin that year for the Western
Behavioral Sciences Institute in California, Coulson said, "1asked
if I could come along" (p. 198), and in California, "I floundered;
conditioned to the structure of long years in school, without
Rogers' own well-internalized set of good work habits, I loafed
for the year until my money ran out. But I mean I got away with
it. Self-declared,Eellow of the Institute, I had the freedom to . . .
fail if I would-as for some time I did. . . and slowly to find my
way to my own productivity. . . . By the time the encounter
project peaked in the fourth year of our WBSI holiday, more than
sixty of us were associated in this work" (p. 76).
Eventually Coulson did become a close colleague of Rogers
(e.g., Coulson and Rogers, 1968); however, as the previous sentence
indicates, he was but one of Rogers's many colleagues and
collaborators. His claim that Rogers, Maslow, and he "cooked
up" humanistic education is patently absurd. While Rogers was
a leading light, many individuals developed the humanistic education
movement, most of them working simultaneously and independently.
Confluent education, values education, creativity
education, achievement motivation, group dynamics in the classroom,
and many other 'aspects of what later came to be called
"humanistic education" were getting underway when Coulson
met Carl Rogers. Winkelman (1969) and Read and Simon (1975)
offered two collections of early writings by other authors who
were also forerunners in affective education. Although Rogers
pioneered the use of the encounter group technique in the classroom,
again he was not the only one to do this; the National
Training Laboratories was engaged in similar experiments
(Bradford, Gibb, & Benne, 1964). Most of the other branches of
humanistic education were much more structured than Rogers's
student-centered approach and employed many specific activities
and curricula developed for use in schools and other
settings.
The self-aggrandizement in Coulson's fantasy of a Rogers-
Maslow-Coulson triumvirate is apparent. The assertion that
Rogers seriously altered his thinking in later years is more
serious, but equally spurious. I know of only two ways inwhich
Rogers eventually modified his educational views in a more
conservative direction; in other respects, he became even more
radical as he got older. First, he eventually introduced a little
more structure into his own classes. He wrote (Rogers, 1969):
ten or fifteen years ago, I probably would have given the group
even more freedom, presenting them with the opportunity (and
the task) of constructing the whole course. I have learned that
this arouses a great deal of anxiety, and a great deal of
frustration and anger directed toward me. ("We came to learn
from you!" "You're paid to be our teacher!" "We can't plan the
course. We don't know the field.") I am not sure that this
resentment is necessary. Consequently, whether out of
cowardice or wisdom, I have come to provide enough limits
and requirements, which can be perceivedas structure, so that
students can comfortably start to work. . . (p. 73)
The new structure he provided was still quite minimal. He
typically distributed an optional reading list, gave a few assignments
(e.g., come to class, keep a journal, write a final paper or
a subject of your choice), and indicated a willingness to lectun
occasionally or do a demonstration if the students requested it
Other than that, he did not change his style or his views. He stil
typically refused to set the agenda for the class sessions. HE
encouraged the students to set their own goals. He spoke only,
small percentage of the time. When he did speak, his mair
responses to the students were "Rogerian" empathic responses
He avoided giving grades if at all possible. In short, other than,
few modifications, "so that students can comfortably start t(
work," Rogers remained as "student-centered" as ever.
Ironically, considering Coulson's charges, if Rogers had an)
critique of humanistic education as he got older, it was that thE
field had too many structured programs and activities. He advo.
cated that teachers (he preferred to call them "facilitators") giVE
their students even morefreedom in designing and implementin~
their education. To his death, he remained on the more extremE
side of the humanistic education field.
The second way Rogers somewhat tempered his thinking wa!
that he did recognize one "pattern of failure" in his work. HE
noticed that his and his colleagues' attempts to use the encounteJ
group technique as their main intervention with entire facultie!
(such as Immaculate Heart College and the Louisville Public
Schools), in order to change the educational system of that institu.
tion, did not work in the long run. Although short-term excite.
ment and improvements could be observed, in the end, thE
turmoil, dissention, and backlash this approach created left thE
institution in a sorry state. In On BecomingCarl Rogers (Kirschen.
baum, 1979), I noted how Rogers's almost exclusive use of thE
encounter technique for system-wide innovation was naive and
showed an ignorance, or at least an ignoring, of the entire growing
field of organizational development. Eventually Rogers realized
the problem and noted this specific "pattern of failure"
(Rogers, 1983, p. 227).
When Coulson uses the words pattern of failure to claim that
Rogers repudiated his basic educational philosophy and
methods-repudiated much of his life's work-he neglects tc
point out ,that Rogers was descri~ing only the failure of a particularinterventioninaparticulartyPeofcircumstance.
That unsuccessful
episode in Rogers's (and Coulson's) career took place in
the early 1970s. For the next 15 years, until his death in 1988 at
age 85, Rogers continued to advocate his earlier views.
"In Retrospect: Forty-Six Years" (Rogers, 1980) would have
been the perfect opportunity for Rogers to express his regrets,
because that essay addressed "What does such a psychologist
think about as he looks back on close to a half-century of study
and work? . . . What is my own current perspective on these
years, thinking both about my professional life and its various
periods of development and change?" (p. 47). In the entire essay,
there is not even a hint of the re-evaluation Coulson claims. On
the contrary, Rogers summarized, '1 recognize that... my whole
approach to persons and their relationships changes but slowly
and very little in its fundamentals" (p. 67).
In 1986, the year before he died, Rogers (1986) wrote:
What do I mean by a client-centered, or person-centered,
approach? For me it expresses the primary theme of my whole
professional life, as that theme has become clarified through
experience, interaction with others, and research. . . . The central
hypothesis can be briefly stated. It is that the individual has
within himself or herself vast resources for self-understanding,
for altering his or her self-concept, attitudes, and self-directed
412 JOURNAL OF COUNSELING &DEVELOPMENT.MAYIJUNE1991. VOL.69
behavior-and that these resources can be tapped if only a
definable climate of facilitative psychological attitudes can be
provided. There are three conditions that constitute this
growth-promoting climate, whether we are speaking of the
relationship between therapist and client, parent and child,
leader and group, teacher and student, or administrator and
staff. The conditions apply, in fact, in any situation in which the
development of the person is a goal. (p. 197)
In the same chapter, Rogers (1986) went on to name and
describe these three facilitative conditions: "genuineness, realness,
or congruence"; "acceptance, or caring, or prizingunconditional
positive regard"; and "empathic understanding."
These were the same three helping conditions he had advocated
for decades, and he still maintained that this approach actually
worked in the real world. He continued,
There is a body of steadily mounting research evidence that, by
and large, supports the view that when these facilitative
conditions are present, changes in personality and behavior do
indeed occur. Such research has been carried on in this and
other countries from 1949 to the present. Studies have been
made of changes in attitude and behavior in psychotherapy, in
degree of learning in school, and in the behavior of
schizophrenics. In general, they are confirming. (p. 198)
Finally, in a personal essay titled "On Reaching 85," published
posthumously, Rogers (1987) expressed a "private thanksgiving"
for many aspects of his long life. He wrote, "I feel deeply
privileged to have lived long enough to see the international
influence of my work" (p. 150). He expressed how rewarding it
felt to know that "Translated into more than a dozen languages,
my written words have touched the hearts and minds and lives
of more persons that I can imagine" (p. 152). He gave examples
of the work he had done to reduce intergroup conflict in many
troubled parts of the world, including Northern Ireland, South
Africa, Central America, and the Soviet Union, and wrote
I derive much satisfaction from knowing that, on a small scale,
we were able to demonstrate, in each of these tension-filled
groups, that meaningful dialogue could be established, that
conflicts could be reduced, that a more realistic mutual
understanding could emerge. We worked only on a test tube
scale, but we showed what was possible. Now the question is
whether there is the social will to multiply these efforts. (p. 151)
Such sentiments hardly sound like the writings of a man who
believes he owes the nation's parents an apology. In the writings
of his last decade, Rogers maintained his characteristic humility,
but one finds a totalabsenceof the doubts, regret, or renunciation
Coulson attributes to him.
On a radio talk show in San Antonio, Texas, where Coulson
(1989, February) was opposing the public schools' drug prevention
program, he wondered aloud why some people thought that
"I was trying to destroy the reputation of my dead colleagues
Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow." Why, indeed? In the halfcentury
career of one of America's most prolific psychologisteducators,
William Coulson found a single admission of fal-
Denigrating Carl Rogers
libility, took it out of context, and used itto distortthe truth about
Rogers's later thinking.
Ironically, when Coulson's ideas began to diverge from
Rogers's, Coulson tried unsuccessfully to convince Rogers of the
error of his ways. Valerie Henderson (personal communication,
June 30, 1989), initially Rogers's personal secretary and then his
colleague in his last years, recalled how Rogers, in his usual
accepting, trusting style, encouraged Coulson to speak for
himself. In a friendly, nondefensive manner, Rogers encouraged
Collison to publish his own ideas on why the humanistic
psychology-affective education movement was misguided and
even dangerous. Had Coulson done simply that, there would be
no need for this article. Professionals can agree to disagree. Little
did Rogers imagine that Coulson's crusade would become so
passionate and personal that it would lead him to distort the
memory of his former mentor, colleague, and friend.
REFERENCES
Bradford, L., Gibb, J., & Benne, K. (Eds.). (1964). T-group theory and
laboratory method. New York: Wiley. ,
Coulson, W. R. (1973). A sense of community. Columbus, OH: Charles E.
Merrill.
Coulson, W. R. (1988, April 23). Memorandum to Federal Drug Education
Curriculum Panel.
Coulson, W. R. (1989, April). Founder of "value-free" education says he
owes parents an apology. AFA Journal, 20-21.
Coulson, W. R. (1989, February 21). [Radio interview on San Antonio,
Texas's WOAl radio station.]
Coulson, W. R., & Rogers, C. R. (Eds.). (1968). Man and the scienceof man.
Columbus, OH: Charles E. Merrill.
Heesacker, M., Heppner, P., & Rogers, M. E. (1982, July). Classics and
emerging classics in counseling psychology. Journal of Counseling
Psychology, 29(4).
Kirschenbaum, H. (1979). On becoming Carl Rogers.New York: Delacorte
Press. .
Kirschenbaum, H., &Henderson, V. (Eds.). (1989a).TheCarl Rogersreader.
Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Kirschenbaum, H., &Henderson, V. (Eds.). (1989b). Carl Rogers:Dialogues.
Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Read, D., & Simon, S. (Eds.). (1975). Humanistic education sourcebook.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Rogers, C. R. (1969). Freedom to learn. Columbus, OH: Charles E. Merrill.
Rogers, C. R. (1980). In retrospect: 46 years. In C. R. Rogers, A way of being
(pp. 46-69) Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Rogers, C. R. (1983). Freedom to learn in the 80s. Columbus, OH: Charles E.
Merrill.
Rogers, C. R. (1986). Client-centered therapy. In I. Kutash & A. Wolf
(Eds.), Psychotherapist's casebook:Theory and technique in the practice of
modern therapies (pp. 197-208.) San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Rogers, C. R. (1987, May). On reaching 85. Person-Centered Review, 2,
150-152.
Smith, D. (1982, July). Trends in counseling and psychotherapy. American
Psychologist, 37(7).
Winkelman, D. (Ed.). (1969, Fall). Psychological humanistic education
[Special issue]. Educational Opportunity Forum, 1(4). Albany, NY: New
York State Education Department.

Howard Kirschenbaum is an author and consultant basedin Raquette Lake,
New York. Correspondence regarding this article should be sent to Howard
Kirschenbaum, One Morgan Road, Raquette Lake,NY 13436.
JOURNAL OF COUNSELING & DEVELOPMENT. MA YIJUNE 1991. VOL. 69 413

O EXPRESSO, COULSON E A EDUCAÇÃO SEXUAL

A propósito do trabalho do Expresso sobre Educação Sexual inquiri a filha de Carl Rogers sobre se William Coulson teria alguma legitimidade para falar em nome daquele teórico. Esta enviou o meu pedido a Howard Kirschenbaum, um prestigiado autor que também colaborou com Carl Rogers. Este enviou-me um texto feito há dez anos, publicado no Journal of Counseling and Development, em 1991 e intitulado

Denigrating Carl Rogers: William Coulson's Last Crusade

This article reviews William Coulson's assertions that Carl Rogers,
AbrahamMaslow, and he initiated the humanistic education field, that
Rogers repudiated his philosophy late in life, and that they owe the
nation's parents an apology.The author argues that these charges are
groundless and self-serving and provides examples and quotations from
Rogers's later writings to show how Rogers remained constant to his
basic person-centered beliefs until his death.

Pedi autorização para publicar aqui o texto na íntegra.

quinta-feira, junho 23, 2005

PAUSA

até 4a feira, dia 29 de Junho.

Os media e a PJ (Polícia Judiciária)

foram sujeito no discurso de Alberto Costa, Ministro da Justiça. Aplaudi.

quarta-feira, junho 22, 2005

IMPRENSA ESCRITA

Nalguns casos os sites de jornais incluem documentos visuais, documentos sonoros, blogues, portfólios, imagens. Esses elementos aumentam de forma exponencial a capacidade informativa dos orgãos de imprensa e acrescentam potencialidades que o papel não pode dar, embora pessoalmente não seja capaz de prescindir de, cada manhã, manipular alguns jornais.

No site do Le Monde está actualmente um video de 2h 40 com Otto Klein, um dos gémeos cobaia do Dr Mengele. Um detalhe: o testemunho foi recolhido em Outubro de 1996 pelos Survivors of the Shoah Visual History Foundation. Como prescindir hoje da memória construida com imagens?

A Shoah Visual History Foundation foi criada em 1994 por Steven Spielberg na sequência do filme A Lista de Schindler. Entre outros, há materiais para professores e universidades.

TELEVISÃO

Mais comentadores na RTP1, após o Telejornal, noticiava hoje o Público.

O DN referia-se também às escolhas da RTP no domínio do comentário. Uma ideia que parece andar no ar é a de não deixar o comentário apenas aos comentadores (profissionais) da política, por mais que estes tenham esse direito e seja útil ao cidadãos saber como o mundo é explicado pelos políticos. Mas há domínios sociais, culturais e científicos que também poderiam ser incluídos o que parece estar na ideia dos responsáveis. Será também de equacionar se a presença dos comentadores não poderia ser mais variada, dando maior rotatividade às presenças.

terça-feira, junho 21, 2005

AINDA O CONCURSO PARA PRESIDIR A FRANCE TELEVISIONS

Do Le Monde de hoje: 5 candidatos foram admitidos para a escolha final de um Presidente para a France Télévisons,

"La télévision reste toujours un obscur objet du désir. Après son appel à candidatures pour la présidence de France Télévisions, lancé le 31 mai, le Conseil supérieur de l'audiovisuel (CSA) a reçu dix-septdossiers qui ont été examinés, le 14 juin, par les neuf membres de l'institution. Cinq candidats ont été retenus, qui seront auditionnés à huis clos les 4 et 5 juillet.

Selon le règlement intérieur du CSA, pour figurer sur cette "short list" , un candidat devait recueillir quatre voix. Certains sont passés tout près de la sélection, d'autres, jugés "fantaisistes" , n'ont recueilli aucune voix.

Le prochain président de France Télévisions sera donc choisi, le 6 juillet, entre Marc Tessier, l'actuel PDG, le journaliste Patrick de Carolis, la productrice Simone Harari, l'écrivain José Frèches et le journaliste Norbert Balit. Pour être élu, le candidat devra recueillir au moins cinq voix. Deux tours de scrutin à bulletin secret sont prévus. En cas d'égalité des voix, et donc de blocage, "chaque membre du conseil devra prendre sa responsabilité" , indique un dirigeant du CSA."

segunda-feira, junho 20, 2005

As fontes vistas por um jornalista

"O problema está no contexto que a precedeu. O clima de pânico que deu a oportunidade aos manifestantes foi construído nos media, a partir do 'arrastão' de dia 10. Não se trata de esconder a realidade da violência suburbana, dos guetos ou mesmo do chamado racismo negro, tudo temas politicamente incorrectos. Na forma como noticiam estes acontecimentos, os media reagem a um discurso, politicamente correcto, que ignora essa realidade. E fazem-no ampliando os factos, como quem desvenda um segredo. Nos acontecimentos de Carcavelos, as televisões adoptaram instantaneamente a tese do arrastão e dos 500 envolvidos. Porquê? Por não termos o hábito de verificar as fontes e de analisar criticamente as informações das fontes, sobretudo quanto estas são oficiais. A fonte disse, está dito, e a cavalo dado não se olha o dente. Como grau de exigência, é pouco."

Miguel Gaspar, hoje, no DN. Ver o texto aqui.

sexta-feira, junho 17, 2005

A RTP PEDE DESCULPA

Não posso deixar de assinalar o facto de a RTP ter feito um pedido de desculpas por ter passado imagens sobre pedofilia e na qual havia menores que podiam ser identificados (ver Público de hoje). Mais importante ainda: estarão a ser ponderadas medidas internas para evitar que se repitam tais situações. O provedor começa a ter exemplos ainda antes de ser nomeado.

quinta-feira, junho 16, 2005

BLOGOSFERA

Realiza-se logo às 18 horas na Cordoaria, em Lisboa, o último dos debates integrados na exposição dos 140 anos do Diário de Notícias. O debate "Blogosfera e o cidadão" tem o contributo de José Pacheco Pereira, Daniel Oliveira e Miguel Gaspar. Ir mais cedo e ver a exposição não é tempo perdido.

Assinalo também artigos no último The Economist: o editorial e um texto sobre Ebay, uma empresa com 10 anos de sucesso na internet (actualmente conta com 150 milhões de utilizadores registados), um outro sobre radio digital e ainda um sobe "technology that imitates nature".
Do artigo da Ebay : "To suceed firms need agility, an open mind and the ability to reinvent themselves repeatedly." Nem mais. Díficil para nós que pensamos que bastou descobrir o mundo há 500 anos.

quarta-feira, junho 15, 2005

UMA TELEVISÃO DIFERENTE

No Público de hoje, Hugo Real, na secção Media escreve sobre a Current TV que será lançada em Agosto, nos EUA, por Al Gore, ex-vice presidente dos EUA. Num período em que o jornalismo tradicional se encontra em crise não se pode deixar de olhar com grande expectativa para o que o jornalismo participativo vai fazer nesta nova estação de televisão. O jornalismo participativo procura "a participação activa dos cidadãos no processo de recolha, reportagem, análise e divulgação de notícias e informação". Na peça do jornalista do Público lembram-se as declarações de Joel Hyatt, co-fundador da Current TV, em declarações à MTV, recordando uma frase de Orson Welles: “Não lhes dêem o que vocês pensam que eles querem. Dêem-lhes o que eles nunca pensaram ser possível".É natural que em Portugal surjam agora aqueles comentários habituais: "jornalismo é só um, se o jornalista fizer bem feito o seu trabalho também faz jornalismo participativo, etc, etc.” Argumentos recorrentes de uma sociedade que teme a inovação.

Eis um excerto que se pode lêr no sítio da Current TV:

“Current is a new, independent cable and satellite TV network. Here's what we're up to:
There's plenty to watch on TV, but as a viewer, you don't have much chance to influence or contribute to what you see. This medium - the most powerful, riveting one we have - is still a narrow vision of reality rolled out in predictable 30-minute chunks. It's still a fortress of an old-school, one-way world.
We want to bust it open.
We're rethinking the way TV is produced, programmed, and presented, so it actually makes sense to an audience that's accustomed to choice, control, and collaboration in everything else they do.
So, we're creating a network in short form. Whenever you tune in to Current, you'll see something amusing, inspiring or interesting. And then, three minutes later, you'll see something new. It'll be a video iPod stocked with a stream of short segments and set to shuffle.
We aim to connect to every facet of real life, so the rotation will include Current Soul, Current Gigs, Current Fashion, Current Lies, Current Tech, and lots more.
These segments will be anchored each hour by the Google Current: an up-to-the-second zeitgeist, a glimpse into what people around the world are searching for and talking about right now.
Finally, there's the Current Studio: our participatory production program, anchored online and open to anyone. The Studio is a cornerstone of this network, and your opportunity to produce, program, and get the word out about our network. If you jump in and get creative, you will see the results on TV.
Current launches later this year, but the Current Studio is in need of your help today. We want to start building a pipeline of your productions and getting a sense of what you want to see on-air well before launch.
We're going to work with you to take a look at what's going on in the world from a fresh perspective: yours. We are excited to begin. We think the process - and your participation - is as important as the final product.”

terça-feira, junho 14, 2005

Uma Universidade de Verão que acaba

Acabou a Université d’Été de la Communication que se realizava em Hourtin, França. Fui a uma das primeiras, em 1982, talvez. Aí fiz uma comunicação sobre uma rede telemática, Telemediateca, que nessa altura se iniciava em França. Em 2002 regressei para uma apresentação colectiva do estudo Os Jovens e a Internet, que foi realizado em vários países. Custa sempre saber que uma manifestação com a vitalidade da Université d’Été, organizada pelo Crepac de l’Acquitaine, desaparece de um momento para o outro. Esta Universidade era um momento político de relevo para muitos discursos de rentrée dos Ministros franceses convidados.

“Hourtin, c'est fini !
La 26ème Université d'Eté de la Communication, organisée par le CREPAC d'Aquitaine, qui devait se tenir à Hourtin du 22 au 25 août, n'aura pas lieu.

Aujourd'hui, l'équilibre financier de la manifestation est loin d'être assuré, et ce en dépit du soutien indéfectible du Conseil régional d'Aquitaine et du Conseil général de la Gironde.

En effet, l'Etat, un certain nombre de grands partenaires industriels mais aussi des institutions publiques n'ont pas été en mesure de renouveler ou d'engager des soutiens financiers significatifs à la manifestation.

Le contexte économique et social a, sans nul doute, fortement pesé dans leur choix de ne pas être partenaires de cette 26ème édition.”

segunda-feira, junho 13, 2005

“WIKITORIALS”

Num artigo de hoje do New York Times referem-se várias mudanças no Los Angeles Times uma das quais os wikitorials, um modo de o jornal experimentar maior diálogo com os leitores e baseado na concepção da enciclopédia wikipedia

.
“This week, the newspaper, will introduce an online feature called "wikitorials," as a way for readers to engage in an online dialogue with the paper. The model is based on "Wikipedia," the Web's free-content encyclopedia that is edited by online contributors.”

sexta-feira, junho 10, 2005

BLOGUES E MÚSICA

NYTNo New York Times li: Little-Known Bands Get Lift Through Word-of-Blog By BRIAN MONTOPOLI, um artigo que equaciona algumas questões nas relações entre um blogue Music for Robots e o mundo da música, em especial de bandas musicais pouco conhecidas.



Diz o NYT: “This is how the Internet was supposed to help music: last year, J. P. Connolly, a science teacher in Brooklyn, heard a song by one of his students, a rail-thin 15-year-old named Oliver Ignatius, who is the lead singer for a band called the Hysterics. Mr. Connolly, who had bonded with his student over independent music, loved Mr. Ignatius's song and posted it on Music for Robots, an influential blog he helps run.

That's where Joseph Patel, an MTV News producer and regular reader of the blog, heard the song. He also loved it, and decided to put the Hysterics on the air, despite the fact that they had done little more than practice in drummer Geoff Turbeville's parents' bedroom.

After the segment was broadcast on MTV, Music for Robots (www.music.for-robots.com) found itself with a new audience: teenage girls, who had come to declare their love for the Hysterics. The band is now in talks with a major label.”

HUMOR E CSA

No Le Monde de hoje pode ler-se um texto relativo ao protesto de associações de autores sobre uma decisão do CSA (Alta Autoridade francesa) relativo aos Guignols. O episódio em causa referia-se ao Papa.

"Le conseil supérieur de l'audiovisuel (CSA) a-t-il outrepassé ses attributions ? C'est la conviction d'une grande partie des auteurs de la télévision et du cinéma. L'Union-Guilde des scénaristes (UGS), la Société des auteurs et compositeurs dramatiques (SACD), le Club des auteurs (CDA), le Groupe 25 images, la Société civile des auteurs, réalisateurs, producteurs (ARP) et la Société des réalisateurs de films ont écrit, lundi 30 mai, au président du CSA, Dominique Baudis, pour lui reprocher un "abus de pouvoir" .

Les auteurs mettent en cause la mise en demeure adressée, lundi 13 mai, à Canal+ par le CSA. Cette sanction faisait suite à la diffusion, mercredi 20 avril, sur la chaîne cryptée, d'un sketch des "Guignols" , dans lequel le nouveau pape, Benoît XVI, rebaptisé "Adolf 2" , déclarait : "Je vous bénis au nom du père, du fils et du troisième Reich !" Ce trait d'humour voulait rappeler que le nouveau pape avait endossé, à l'époque de la seconde guerre mondiale, l'uniforme des jeunesses hitlériennes."

O artigo termina lembrando dois factos: por um lado a pressão do lobby religioso, por outro ter sido decisivo o voto das mulheres, ao que se presume com algum peso nas decisões do orgão regulador.

quinta-feira, junho 09, 2005

Ser Presidente de France Télévisions

Marc Tessier é o actual Presidente de France Télevisions. A entidade reguladora francesa (Conseil supérieur de l’audiovisuel) abriu CONCURSO para a presidência dessa entidade do serviço público (France 2, France 3, France 4, France 5, RFO et France Télévisions). Um bom exemplo para “desgovernamentalizar” o serviço público.

Mas nem tudo são rosas no hexágono: Marc Tessier, que será seguramente candidato, foi alvo de uma acção em tribunal pondo em causa “alegados favorecimentos” que teria feito ao seu companheiro, M. Abenayake.

Segundo um comunicado de Tessier citado pelo Le Monde; "S'il est normal que mon compagnon reçoive des accréditations et invitations, au même titre que les épouses ou époux des personnalités également invitées, aucun frais n'a été engagé par France Télévisions le concernant." Selon M. Tessier, cette plainte intervient "opportunément, quelques jours après l'annonce de la procédure de nomination du président de France Télévisions, alors qu'il s'agit de faits connus de tous de longue date, et dont je ne me suis jamais caché" .

Na proximidade do agora presidente acha-se que se está a agitar o espectro da homofobia e os directores das diferentes estações parecem solidários com Marc Tessier. “Lundi, les directeurs généraux de France 2, France 3, France 4, France 5, RFO et France Télévisions se sont déclarés "unanimement solidaires" de M. Tessier et ont affirmé être "à ses côtés pour démonter ces accusations mensongères" .

quarta-feira, junho 08, 2005

PROVEDOR DOS LEITORES do NYT

PressThinkO New York Times tem um novo provedor dos leitores, Byro Calame. Manuel Pinto escreveu no blogue Jornalismo e Comunicação: “Na sua primeira coluna como provedor de "The New York Times", Byron Calame afirma a continuidade com o trabalho realizado nos últimos 18 meses pelo primeiro titular da função, mas anuncia uma inflexão no estilo, que poderá tornar o seu espaço mais parecido com um blogue:

"In the months ahead, there are three new approaches to transparency that I'm especially keen to try in this space: (1) publishing stimulating and thoughtful e-mail messages and letters from readers - with responses from the editors and reporters involved; (2) presenting question-and-answer interviews with key editors and round-table discussions with editors and reporters; and (3) occasionally offering commentary on two or three different topics, rather than one".
Depois de uma longa carreira no jornalismo, da qual 40 anos no The Wall Street Journal, no qual terminou funções exercendo como responsável pelo controlo de qualidade, questões éticas e queixas dos leitores, Calame anuncia a intenção de utilizar mais a Internet no exercíco do cargo de ombudsman.”

Vale a pena também ler o que escreveu Jay Rosen, uma figura destacada do jornalismo cívico, no seu blogue Press Think sobre o mandato de Daniel Ockrent, o anterior “public editor” do NYT cujo mandato terminou em Maio (ver post de May 13th). Jay Rosen lembra que até há um ano o argumento do NY era de que a ligação aos leitores era feita pelos editores e jornalistas. Onde já terei ouvido isto?

“In appreciating Okrent, it's good to go back to the reasoning that held across the 36 years in which the New York Times refused to appoint an ombudsman. It went like this: "Every editor should represent the interests of the reader, and respond to complaints if they have merit. That's what good editors do. We have good editors. We need no ombudsman."

Jay Rosen acha que a influência de Ockrent se verificou em 4 grandes áreas:

“I see Okrent's lasting influence in four main areas:

1.) He changed the way readers were represented at the Times; this is to my mind his most important and far-reaching accomplishment, and I discuss it more below.

2.) Executive editor Bill Keller created the job (and he had his own ideas about how it should work, which have been vindicated) but Okrent created the "office" of public editor, with various procedures for responsiveness. For example: an e-mail address (public@nytimes.com) and a phone number (212-556-7652) that actually work.

3.) He listened (and responded) to critics of the Times more carefully than people at the newspaper thought necessary-- even the most partisan critics. He once wrote, "Closing one's ears to the complaints of partisans would also entail closing one's mind to the substance of their arguments." This he declined to do. In fact, he said his primary advice to Barney Calame would be to "engage with the paper’s critics."

I’ve had incredibly valuable, and frequently fascinating, conversations with Times detractors ranging from FAIR to CAMERA to Accuracy in Media; with people who find the paper anti-Catholic, anti-Labor, or anti-Whatever. The practice has done two things for me: it’s enabled me to empathize with the critics, but also with those who daily endure the assaults of the critics.

4.) One Sunday morning he called the New York Times a liberal newspaper. And even though he meant "...on social issues only!" it was still a profound moment in the history of the Times-- and I believe a liberating one. He said it was his most important column and he's right.”

terça-feira, junho 07, 2005

JORNALISMO ON LINE

Dois "sites" de jornais onde dá gosto navegar:

Le Monde

The Guardian.

segunda-feira, junho 06, 2005

IMAGENS DE TELEVISÃO

Hoje, no Clube dos Jornalistas, vai estar Augusto Santos Silva, Ministro dos Assuntos Parlamentares que tem o pelouro da Comunicação Social. Na :2, às 23h 30

JORNAIS NA ESCOLA

O Diário de Notícias refere hoje um projecto que se desenrola em Itália e que procura aproximar os jovens e a imprensa escrita.

“Os jornais devem ter uma linguagem mais simples e mais atraente, ter mais fotos, mais cor e espaços dedicados aos mais novos, revela um estudo Os adolescentes italianos continuam a estar muito distantes dos assuntos abordados como primeiras notícias, como é o caso da política.”

Todos os jornais estão confrontados com a renovação do público que os lê. Nenhum deveria ignorar esta articulação com as escolas e com os jovens. É uma questão de sobrevivência além de ser um imperativo de cidadania.

“A sondagem revelou ainda que os alunos que mais lêem (48 por cento), são aqueles que participam desde há mais anos no programa Diário na Aula, e que têm maior curiosidade pela vida política e social do país.”

Recordo o site do CLEMI, instituição francesa que trabalha há mais de 20 anos neste domínio.

sábado, junho 04, 2005

JORNALISMO ON LINE

Peritos dizem que futuro do jornalismo é 'online' . Sou pouco de futurologias. Mas estou de acordo pois já se podem ver hoje a importância bem como algumas mudanças que o on line está a provocar.

Ver mais informação no blogue Dez Anos de Jornalismo Digital em Portugal, blogue que foi criado para divulgação da iniciativa.

sexta-feira, junho 03, 2005

ÉTICA

Se é jornalista ou professor de jornalismo, não lhe fará mal ler estas indicações sobre ética que se encontram na On Line Jornalism Review do Anneberg Center da USC (University of Southern California). Há considerações sobre plágio, sobre a necessidade de revelar aos leitores as condições em que se escreve (disclose, disclose, disclose), sobre as ofertas e o dinheiro (no gifts or money for the coverage), sobre a verificação dos factos e o escrever verdade.
“In summary, be honest with your readers and transparent about your work. If people wonder for a moment about your honesty or your motives, you've lost credibility with them. Don't let them do that. Answer those questions even before readers ask.”

quinta-feira, junho 02, 2005

JORNALISMO DIGITAL

O jornalismo sofrerá profundas transformações nos próximos anos por causa da internet. Essas transformações são já visíveis na década que passou. Mas o título de uma peça do DN de hoje sintetisa bem o que em Portugal se terá passado neste período: Ciberjornalismo português rudimentar dez anos depois. Na peça, Helder Bastos, professor na Universidade do Porto, diz-se pessimista. Tem companhia.

Para discutir o que se tem passado e o futuro, estão hoje e amanhã reunidos em Braga, na Universidade do Minho, alguns investigadores portugueses e estrangeiros. A iniciativa intitula-se Jornalismo Digital em Portugal: Estado da Arte e Cenários Futuros.

quarta-feira, junho 01, 2005

E LÁ FORA ? (II)

Na conferência da World Association Newspapers, a decorrer em Seoul, Arthur O. Sulzberger, Chairman, The New York Times Company, USA proferiu uma conferência sobre “Restoring Newspaper Credibility”. Sulzberger indicou três medidas que o jornal tomou para restaurar a credibilidade abalada:

1) a nomeação de um provedor;
2) a publicação na web de documentos que servem de base às notícias e de versões de entrevistas;
3) o combate acrescido às fontes anónimas.

Ryoki Sugita, President & CEO, do jornal japonês The Nihon Keizai Shimbun, falou sobre a combinação das versões papel com as tecnologias de informação.

"Newspapers printed on paper are superior in many ways. For example, editors can control the size of headlines and placement of stories on the printed page, so that readers can judge the importance at a glance. Long analytical articles and special features are easier to read at your leisure when they are printed on paper. Paper is easy to pick up and take with you.

"On the other hand, the internet also has advantages over newspapers. it is fater, for example. It can be used interactively, and it can present images more easily. This why I am looking into methods for making good use of these strengths of the 'net and IT, or information technology, to make newspapers even more powerful as a print medium. The idea here is not to replace paper with the on-line experience. Rather, I want to make use of the internet as a supplement in order to make the print medium even more attractive.

"For example, articles and information that we don't carry in then printed paper could be provided together with interactive services over the internet. There must also be effective ways for using this kind of approach in advertising and sales promotions, and I believe we will find them."

Não se pode estar parado.